Kainantu–Goroka languages - Kainantu–Goroka languages

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Kainantu–Goroka
East Highlands
Geographic
distribution
highlands of Kainantu and Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationTrans–New Guinea
Subdivisions
Glottologkain1273[1]
Kainantu-Goroka languages.svg
Map: The Kainantu–Goroka languages of New Guinea
  The Kainantu–Goroka languages
  Other Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

The Kainantu–Goroka language are a family of Papuan languages established by Arthur Capell in 1948 under the name East Highlands. They formed the core of Stephen Wurm's 1960 East New Guinea Highlands family (the precursor of Trans–New Guinea), and are one of the larger branches of Trans–New Guinea in the 2005 classification of Malcolm Ross.

Languages

The constituent Kainantu and Goroka families are clearly valid groups, and both William A. Foley and Timothy Usher consider their TNG identity to be established. The languages are,[2]

Pronouns

The pronouns reconstructed by Ross (2005) for proto-Kainantu–Goroka, proto-Kainantu, and proto-Goroka are as follows:

proto-Kainantu–Goroka
sg pl
1 *ná *tá[za]
2 *ká[za] *tá-na-
3 *[y]á, *wá *yá[na]
proto-Kainantu
sg du pl
1 *né *té[ze]- *té[ze]
2 *é[ze] *[te]né-
3 *wé
proto-Goroka
sg pl
1 *ná *tá[za]
2 *ká *tá-na-gaza, *tí-na-gaza
3 *[y]á *[y]á-na-gaza, *í-na-gaza

The possessive forms are:

proto-Kainantu–Goroka
sg pl
1 *na-i *ta-i
2 *ka *tana-i
3 *[y]a, *wa *ya-i, *yana-i

Evolution

Kainantu–Goroka reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma are:[3]

Awa language:

  • are ‘ear’ < *kand(e,i)k(V]
  • nu ‘louse’ < *niman

Tairora language:

  • ato ‘ear’ < *kand(e,i)k(V]
  • ir ‘tree’ < *inda
  • (n)am ‘breast’ < *amu
  • nume ‘louse’ < *niman
  • kubu ‘short’ < *k(a,u)tu(p,mb)aC
  • mi- ‘give’ < *mV-

Fore language:

  • na- ‘eat’ < *na-
  • numaa ‘louse’ < *niman
  • mi- ‘give’ < *mV-
  • amune ‘egg’ < *mun(a,i,u)ka
  • kasa ‘new’ < *kVndak
  • mone ‘nose’ < *mundu

Gende language:

  • ami ‘breast’ < *amu
  • mut ‘belly’ < *mundun ‘internal organs’
  • mina- ‘stay’ < *mVna-
  • nogoi ‘water < *[n]ok, (tu)
  • nima ‘louse’ < *niman
  • me- ‘give’ < *mV-

Innovations in proto-Kainantu-Goroka replacing proto-Trans-New Guinea forms:[3]

  • *tá[za] ‘1pl’ replaces pTNG *ni, *nu
  • *tá-na ‘2pl’ replaces pTNG *ŋgi, *ja
  • genitive forms ending in *-i

Vocabulary

Gorokan basic vocabulary from William A. Foley (1986):[4]

gloss Proto-Gorokan Gende Siane Benabena KamonoYagaria Fore
‘two’ *tote ogondrari lele loe lole tara
‘man’ *we vei we vo ve wa
‘water’ *no(k) nogoi no nagami ni(na) wani
‘fire’ tuva yo logo hali yakuʔ
‘tree’ *ya izo ya yafa yava yaː
‘leaf’ kuruma aila haya(ʔa) haeya aʔyeʔ
‘root’ *supa tovaya lufawa lufusa(ʔa) havu aubu
‘house’ *nom nomu numu(na) no(hi) yo(na) naːmaʔ
‘breast’ *ami ami- ami(na) amiha(ʔa) ami(maʔa) nono
‘tooth’ *wa va(iza) auma yogo(ʔa) (ä)vep (a)wa
‘bone’ *yampu yami- auma felisa(ʔa) (a)pu(va) (a)yaːmpu
‘ear’ *ke/a ka- ka(la) (e)kesa(ʔa) (ä)geta (a)ge
‘hair’ *yoka yogo yowa(la) oka(ʔa) (a)yokaʔ (a)yaːʔ
‘leg’ *kia kia- kiya(na) gigusa(ʔa) (a)gia (a)gisaː
‘blood’ *kota mamia- wanu golaha(ʔa) gola(na) koraːʔ
‘hand’ *ya ya a(na) yaha(ʔa) (ä)ya ya
‘egg’ *mut mura mula mu(ʔa) mu(na) amuʔ
‘sun’ *po po fo yafi yafo yaːbu
‘axe’ *tu tu luna lu lu tuʔ
‘netbag’ *ko ko owo gu(ʔi) gu(na) koʔ
‘eat’ *na- na- n- na- no- na-
‘die’ *puti- pri- fol- fili- fili- puri-
‘say’ *si- ti- l- li- hi- i-
‘give’ *mi- imi- om- m- mi- mi-
‘big’ *(n)ampa namba namba napa legepa tabe

Kainantu basic vocabulary from William A. Foley (1986):[4]

gloss Awa Auyana Gadsup Tairora
‘two’ tɔtare kaiʔa kaantani taaraʔanta
‘man’ waiya banta bainti
‘water’ no nomba nomi namari
‘fire’ ira irama ikai iha
‘tree’ ta taima yaani katari
‘leaf’ ɔnɔ anama anai mare
‘root’ anuʔ anuʔa anuʔi tuʔa
‘house’ naamba maʔi naabu
‘breast’ naamba naami naama
‘tooth’ awɛ awaiyamba abakuni aabai
‘bone’ ayɔnta ayaantamba ayampai buhaarima
‘ear’ ɔre aʔa aakami aato
‘hair’ (a)yɔra aayara -nyoi kauhi
‘leg’ ai aisamima akani aiʔu
‘blood’ nɛe naema naarei naare
‘hand’ ayɔnobeh ayamba aayaami kauʔu
‘egg’ au auma amuʔi auru
‘sun’ popoʔnah aabauma ikona kauri
‘axe’ konaro koraroba kuntaʔi kaarima
‘netbag’ unɔ unaamba unaami uta
‘eat’ nɔno nare naano naana
‘die’ pukire pukai pukono ʔutubiro
‘say’ iraruwo siyo seʔu tiena
‘give’ awiʔ ami ameno amina
‘big’ aanotɔ anomba inoʔna nora

See also

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kainantu–Goroka". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ (NewGuineaWorld)
  3. ^ a b Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  4. ^ a b Foley, William A. (1986). The Papuan Languages of New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-28621-2.

External links

  • Timothy Usher, New Guinea World, Kainantu

Bibliography

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