Duna–Pogaya languages -

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Duna–Pogaya
Duna–Bogaia
Geographic
distribution
Hela Province, Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationTrans–New Guinea
  • Duna–Pogaya
Subdivisions
GlottologNone
Duna-Pogaya languages.svg
Map: The Duna–Pogaya languages of New Guinea
  The Duna–Pogaya languages
  Other Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

The Duna–Pogaya (Duna–Bogaia) languages are a proposed small family of Trans–New Guinea languages in the classification of Voorhoeve (1975), Ross (2005) and Usher (2018), consisting of two languages, Duna and Bogaya, which in turn form a branch of the larger Trans–New Guinea family.[1] Glottolog, which is based largely on Usher, however finds the connections between the two languages to be tenuous, and the connection to TNG unconvincing.[2]

Language contact

Duna has had significant influence on Bogaya due to the socioeconomic dominance of Duna speakers over the less populous, less influential Bogaya speakers.[3] Duna also has much more influence from Huli (a widely spoken Trans-New Guinea language) at 27–32 percent lexical similarity with Huli, while Duna has only 5-10 percent.[3]

Pronouns

Pronouns are:

sg du pl
1 *nó *ge-na *i-nu
2 *gó
3 *kó *ki-nu

Vocabulary comparison

The following basic vocabulary words are from the Trans-New Guinea database:[4]

gloss Bogaya Duna
head yeľʌ; yela kuni
hair heepi; yeľʌ eľika hini
ear hona; hɔnʌn kɔhane; konane
eye kina; kiːnʌn le
nose kuuma; pfouľu kuma
tooth yagai; yʌkʌi ne; nee
tongue iki; ɩkin ogone; ɔgɔne
leg yehei; yehʌi tia
louse fando; fiľʌ tete
dog ɔv̧ɔpi; yau yawi
pig ʌpʌn isa
bird aka; pitʌkʌ heka
egg oondi; pitʌkʌ ɔ̃udi hapa
blood sokoya; yesʌ kuyila
bone hakale; hʌv̧ʌľe kuni
skin hugwa; hukuʌn pulu
breast alu; ʌľu abu; adu; amu
tree dowa; tɔuʌ lowa; lɔwa
man ami; ʌmĩ anoa; anɔa
woman ĩmiʌ; imya ima
sun owa; ɔwa hewa
moon kaiyuu; kʌiu eke
water paiyuku; pʌiuku yu
fire dowada; tɔun lɔwa kiliana; lowa puru
stone haana; hʌnʌ kana; kuna
name ʌmĩn; yaga yaka
eat nã; nosii nai-; neyana
one mɔsʌ kɔmʌ; moso du
two efʌn; yeefa yapa

Evolution

Duna reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma are:[3]

  • amu ‘breast’ < *amu
  • konane ‘ear’ < *kand(e,i)k(V]
  • kuni ‘bone’ < *kondaC

References

  1. ^ NewGuineaWorld
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bogaya". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b c Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  4. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.
  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.

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